String Building in JavaScript

If you come from Java, you may be used to the StringBuilder or StringJoiner classes for building dynamic strings. There aren't equivalent data structures in the JavaScript standard library, so when building strings in JavaScript, there are a couple options I usually reach for.

Template Literal

When building a string with known, defined variables, I tend to use a template literal, which is a specific type of string that allows for creating strings that contain variables or expressions.

For example, if the Detroit Pistons are playing at home against the Cleveland Cavaliers, you might represent that in the box score as "CLE @ DET". To build that with a template literal looks like this:

const away = 'CLE'
const home = 'DET'
const boxScoreTeams = `${away} @ ${home}`

This makes sense when you are dealing with variables, or even expressions like function calls or object property access, to build a string with a known structure.

const awayTeam = {
  name: 'Cleveland Cavaliers',
  abbreviation: 'CLE',
const homeTeam = {
  name: 'Detroit Pistons',
  abbreviation: 'DET',
const boxScoreTeams = `${awayTeam.abbreviation} @ ${homeTeam.abbreviation}`


Another way to build strings is to use the Array data structure and join them together with a string separator.

const boxScoreTeams = [awayTeam.abbreviation, homeTeam.abbreviation].join(' @ ')

Sometimes this approach can be overkill for simply joining two strings with a separator, but it is still a viable option, especially if you and your team find it readable and maintainable.

I usually reach for the Array-based string building approach when I am dealing with multiple pieces of dynamic data, where some of the pieces are optional, and I can safely remove undefined data from the final output string.

For example, let's build a title string that you might display in a browser tab for a specific game. Here are the requirements:

  • Always display "NBA" at the start of the string.
  • When you are on the game box score page, show "{Away Team Abbreviation} @ {Home Team Abbreviation}".
  • When the game is in progress or complete, show the score and game status; otherwise, don't include that information.
  • Separate strings with " | ".
function createDocumentTitle(game) {
  return [
    isBoxScorePage() ? buildTeamAbbreviations(game.teams) : undefined,
    hasGameStartedOrFinished(game) ? buildGameLineScore(game) : undefined,
    .join(' | ')

// Possible results
// 'NBA'
// 'NBA | CLE @ DET'
// 'NBA | CLE @ DET | 44-51 6:21 2Q'

Custom StringBuilder Class

Another option is to build your own Java-esque StringBuilder class to suit whatever needs you may have! Even if you don't find it that practical to use in your work codebases, it's fun to learn and try something new. 😄

class StringBuilder {
  constructor() {
    this.#parts = []

  append(string) {
    return this

  join(separator = '') {
    return this.#parts.join(separator)

// Using the StringBuilder class
// to achieve the same results in the previous example
function createDocumentTitle(game) {
  const stringBuilder = new StringBuilder()
  if (isBoxScorePage()) {
  if (hasGameStartedOrFinished(game)) {
  return stringBuilder.join(' | ')